Malcolm X was born 98 years ago today
Malcolm X was born 98 years ago today.
Born as Malcolm Little, he was a Muslim minister and a human rights activist. To his admirers, he was a courageous advocate for the rights of blacks — a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans. Detractors accused him of preaching racism and violence. He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.
Malcolm X was effectively orphaned early in life. His father was killed when he was six and his mother was placed in a mental hospital when he was thirteen, after which he lived in a series of foster homes. In 1946, at age 20, he went to prison for larceny and breaking and entering.
While in prison, Malcolm X became a member of the Nation of Islam, and after his parole in 1952, quickly rose to become one of the organization's most influential leaders, serving as the public face of the controversial group for a dozen years.
In his autobiography, Malcolm X wrote proudly of some of the social achievements the Nation made while he was a member, particularly its free-of-cost drug rehabilitation program. In keeping with the Nation's teachings, he promoted black supremacy, advocated the separation of black and white Americans and rejected the civil rights movement for their emphasis on integration.
By March, 1964, Malcolm X had grown disillusioned with the Nation of Islam and its leader, Elijah Muhammad. Expressing many regrets about his time with them, which he had come to regard as largely wasted, he embraced Sunni Islam.
After a period of travel in Africa and the Middle East which included completing the Hajj, he repudiated the Nation of Islam, disavowed racism and founded Muslim Mosque, Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. He continued to emphasize Pan-Africanism, black self-determination and black self-defense.
In February, 1965, Malcolm X was assassinated at age 39 by three Nation of Islam members.
The Autobiography of Malcolm X, published shortly after his death, is considered one of the most influential nonfiction books of the 20th century.